歷史學家這一行業,我認為是在從事找尋、發掘與重構的工作,這是一項美妙的行業,但也是一項困難的行業,要做的好,必須投入相當的工作, 擁有許多不同領域的知識,以及具有一項真實的智識力量:好奇、想像、組織能力、清晰的表達,與公正不偏頗的思想,並具有對不同類型的人的感受力。 -Marc Bloch

2013-06-07

Medical Practice in Medieval and Early Modern Europe

16:06 Posted by Feng-en Tu No comments

慢慢把當時讀的書單po上來(不過也實在太慢了點....)第二次的主題是醫者和他們的practice(這該怎麼翻譯比較好?)。這種偏社會史的角度,在醫學史裡是一個比較晚的發展,大約要從1980中期之後才慢慢起來。早期的研究還是以醫學思想和理論為主。Edward Kealey跟Katharine Park的第一本書,都屬於這一類。90年代以後又更多,而且注意到許多非主流的醫者。Valerie Flint的文章討論在中古早期,除了醫者和聖人之外,還有一種Enchanter(又該怎麼翻譯?有點類似Charlatan),同時被兩方夾殺。Peter Brown不是專門的醫學史家,不過專門研究聖人歷史的他,很自然就注意到當時在神殿(shrine)有很多醫療行為在上演。Brown的書寫的很薄,但我花了很多時間讀。

我有一陣子對外科特別感興趣,所以P老師推薦了幾篇外科醫生相關的文章。原來除了一般受過專業訓練的surgeon之外,還有一些醫者被認為是surgical specialists,他們地位比surgeons更低一些,大多處理一些簡單的外傷問題,也是在各地四處巡遊,販賣自己的技術。




David Gentilcore寫義大利的江湖郎中(Charlatan)特別有趣,因為在義大利,連Charlatan也是要向政府登記的。所以他們留了一大批的資料,讓像Gentilcore這樣的史學家可以做一個完整的資料庫,深入地分析。

醫院則是醫學史的另一個重點。John Henderson寫文藝復興義大利的醫院,讓人大開眼界,那是一本非常紮實而敏銳的研究。一般的說法是中古到近代早期的醫院大多規模不大,而且以宗教性、救濟性為主,醫治人的成分不多,而會進醫院的,大多是一些窮人。但義大利卻很不一樣,Henderson研究的那些醫院,就是富麗堂皇,而且還有專門的醫生進駐。他的分析指出,這些醫院提供的服務水準其實相當高,而且都是一些有頭有臉的人到醫院去。當然,義大利的醫院也提供的完整服務。Henderson另外也研究的院裡的護士。


Healers and Patients -- the Middle Ages
  1. Edward J. Kealey, Medieval Medicus: A Social History of Anglo-Norman Medicine (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981).  
  2. Faye Getz, Medicine in the English Middle Ages (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).  
  3. Michael McVaugh, “Bedside Manners in the Middle Ages,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71.2(1997): 201-223.
  4. Peter Murray Jones, “Thomas Fayreford: An English Fifteenth-Century Medical Practitioner,” in Medicine from Black Death to the French Disease. pp. 156-183
Religious Healing
  1. Valerie Flint, “The Early Medieval ‘Medicus’, the Saint – and the Enchanter,” The Social History of Medicine 2 (1989): 127-45. 
  2. Peter Brown, The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Its Function in Latin Christianity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), ch.6 
  3. Lea T. Oslan, "Charms and Prayers in Medieval Medical Theory and Practice," Social History of Medicine 16.3 (2003): 343-66.
Healers and Patients -- Early Modern
  1. Jerome Bylebyl, “The Manifest and the Hidden in the Renaissance Clinic,” in W.F. Bynum and Roy Porter, eds., Medicine and the Five Senses (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 40-58.
  2. Gianna Pomata, Contracting a Cure: Patients, Healers, and the Law in Early Modern Bologna [1994], trans. by the author with Rosemarie Foy and Anna Taraboletti-Segre (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), ch. 5.
  3. Margaret Pelling, “Medical Practice in Early Modern England: Trade or Profession?” in The Professions in Early Modern England, ed. W. Prest (London: Croom Helm, 1987), 90-128.
  4. David Gentilcore, Healers and Healing in Early Modern Italy (Manchester/NYC: Manchester University Press, 1998). 
Surgeons
  1. Marie-Christine Pouchelle, The Body and Surgery in the Middle Ages [1983], trans. Rosemary Morris (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990).  
  2. Jole Agrimi and Chiara Chrisciani, “The science and practice of medicine in the thirteenth century according to Guglielmo da Saliceto, Italian surgeon,” in Luis Garcia-Ballester et. al. eds, Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 60-87.
  3. Katharine Park, “Eyes, Bones, and Hernias: Surgical Specialists in Fourteenth- and Fifteenth-Century Italy,” in Jon Arrizabalaga, ed., Medicine from the Black Death to the French Disease (London: Ashgate, 1998), 110-30.
  4. Margaret Pelling, “Appearances and reality: barber-surgeons, the body and disease,” in A. Beier and R. Finlay eds. London 1500-1700: the Making of the Metropolis (London: Longman, 1986)
  5. Roger Jutte, “A seventeenth-century German barber-surgeon and his patients,” Medical History 33(1990), 184-98.
Charlatans
  1. Katharine Park, “Country Medicine in the City Marketplace: Snakehandlers in Renaissance Italy,” Renaissance Studies 15 (2001): 104-20. 
  2. David Gentilcore, Medical Charlatanism in Early Modern Italy (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), Intro, Ch. 1, 2, 4, 5.
  3. Geneviève Dumas and Faith Wallis, “Theory and Practice in the Trial of Jean Domrémi, 1423-1427,” Journal of the History of Medicine 54 (1999): 55-87. 
  4. Peter E. Pormann, “The Physician and the Other: Images of the Charlatan in Medieval Islam,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 79.2 (2005): 189-227.
  5. King, Roger, “Curing Toothache on the Stage? The Importance of Reading Pictures in Context,” History of Science 33.4(1995): 396-416.
Hospitals
  1. Peregrine Horden, “The Earliest Hospitals in Byzantium, Western Europe, and Islam.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 35.3 (2005), pp. 361-389. 
  2. Peregrine Horden, “A Discipline of Relevance: The Historiography of the Later Medieval Hospital,” Social History of Medicine, I (1988), 359–374.
  3. Peregrine Horden, “A Non-natural Environment: Medicine without Doctors and the Medieval European Hospital” in B. Bowers ed., The Medieval Hospital and Medical Practice.
  4. John Henderson, The Renaissance Hospital. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
  5. Robert Jütte, “Syphilis and Confinement: Hospitals in Early Modern Germany,” in Norbert Finzsch and Robert Jütte eds, Institutions of Confinement: Hospitals, Asylums, and Prisons in Western Europe and North America, 1500-1950 (Cambrdige: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 97-116.

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